Thursday, 30 November 2023

A Glossary of Natural Language Processing (NLP) Terms

19 Feb 2023

As the world continues to become more technologically advanced, Natural Language Processing (NLP) has emerged as a prominent field of study. NLP is a subfield of artificial intelligence (AI) that focuses on teaching machines to understand human language in order to interact with humans in a more natural and intuitive way. NLP is used in many applications, such as virtual assistants, chatbots, speech recognition software, and language translation tools.

In this article, we provide a comprehensive glossary of NLP terms that will help you better understand this fascinating field.


Tokenization is the process of breaking down a text into individual units, usually words or sentences. These individual units are called tokens. Tokenization is an important step in NLP because it helps computers better understand the structure of a text.


Stemming is the process of reducing words to their root form. For example, the word “running” would be reduced to “run.” Stemming helps to reduce the complexity of text data and can improve the accuracy of NLP models.


Lemmatization is similar to stemming, but it involves reducing words to their base form, known as a lemma. Unlike stemming, lemmatization takes into account the context of the word and can produce more accurate results.

Part-of-Speech Tagging

Part-of-Speech (POS) tagging is the process of labeling each word in a text with its corresponding part of speech, such as noun, verb, adjective, or adverb. This information is important for NLP models to accurately understand the meaning of a sentence.

Named Entity Recognition (NER)

Named Entity Recognition (NER) is the process of identifying and classifying named entities in text, such as people, organizations, and locations. NER is important for information extraction and text mining applications.

Sentiment Analysis

Sentiment Analysis is the process of determining the emotional tone of a piece of text. This is useful in applications such as social media monitoring, customer feedback analysis, and brand reputation management.

Text Classification

Text Classification is the process of categorizing a piece of text into predefined categories. This can be used in applications such as spam filtering, topic modeling, and content tagging.

Language Modelling

Language Modelling is the process of using statistical techniques to build models that can predict the probability of a sequence of words in a text. This is used in applications such as speech recognition, machine translation, and spell checking.

Neural Networks

Neural Networks are a type of machine learning model that is loosely based on the structure of the human brain. Neural Networks are used in many NLP applications, such as language modeling, sentiment analysis, and speech recognition.

Word Embeddings

Word Embeddings are a type of language model that represents words as numerical vectors in a high-dimensional space. Word embeddings are used in many NLP applications, such as language translation and sentiment analysis.

In conclusion, NLP is a rapidly evolving field with many applications in the real world. The glossary of terms provided in this article is just a starting point for those interested in learning more about NLP. As NLP continues to advance, it will undoubtedly play an increasingly important role in how we interact with technology and each other.